Delay Lines Week: Did You Know... API's Delay Lines Have Conductor Spacing as Small as 1/180th of a Human Hair?

by Allison Goss 12. March 2015 15:43

Did you Know?  API has perfected the wafer fabrication technique in our SAW delay lines to achieve conductor spacing down to .6 microns, ( 1/180th of the diameter of the average human hair) which allows for higher frequency delay lines

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RF/Microwave & Microelectronics

Delay Lines Week: Did You Know... API's Delay Lines Offer Delays Below 1 Nanosecond?

by Allison Goss 12. March 2015 12:01

Did you Know? API’s Coaxial Delay Lines offer delays of 1 nanosecond, operating at 70% the speed of light

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RF/Microwave & Microelectronics

Delay Lines Week: Did You Know... API's Delay Lines Help Prevent Car Accidents?

by Allison Goss 12. March 2015 09:34

Did You Know? API’s Delay Lines are used in collision avoidance systems. Collision avoidance systems and driver-assist technology uses radar to detect moving vehicles and stationary objects. If your vehicle has this type of technology, there may be a delay line integrated into the system to process the radar signal!

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RF/Microwave & Microelectronics

Delay Lines Week: Where Can You Find API's Delay Lines?

by Allison Goss 11. March 2015 09:20

Weather radar. Electronic warfare (EW) target generation. Clock synchronization. What do all of these systems have in common? API's delay lines can be found in all of them, plus many others.

Delay Lines APPLICATIONS API Technologies Where Can You Find API's Delay Lines? API's Delay Lines, featuring BAW (Bulk Acoustic Wave), SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave), Coaxial ­ High Frequency, LC (Lumped Constant), & Steel ­ Pulse Compression topologies, are used in a number of applications. Maritime Radar Doppler Processing Weather radars emit pulses which track the movement and location of objects like raindrops, hailstones, etc. Delay lines are used to control the timing of these pulses. On-board radar scanners provide bearing and distance of ships and land targets in the vicinity for collision avoidance and navigation at sea.EW Target Generation Communications Systems Clock Synchronization A radar target generator passes a radar signal through delay lines to a receiver to simulate a fixed target in time, which may be used to range calibrate the system. In many telecommunications networks, delay lines are used to synchronize information to set clock timing. Delay lines provide required delays to synchronize data for video or communication systems such as those used in TV broadcasting.

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Infographics | RF/Microwave & Microelectronics

Delay Lines Week Meet the Team: Bob Comstock, General Manager

by Jaymie Murray 10. March 2015 13:57

In his role as the General Manager of API's Auburn, NY facility, Bob Comstock works with several delay line topologies, including BAW, Dispersive Steel, Coaxial, and Lumped Constant (LC). In this Q & A, he discusses some of our delay lines, their applications, and what sets us apart from our competitors.   

Q: How long have you been here at API?

A: I’ve done a few long stints off and on over the past 30 years, so I would say that I’ve worked here for about 21 years total. During that time I’ve worked extensively with several of our delay lines topologies. In the early 80s, it was Dispersive Steel delay lines that were used to enhance radar signals for smaller targets. In the 90s, I worked with long dispersive delay lines that were also used in radars. From about 2002 until now I’ve been heavily involved with BAW (Bulk Acoustic Wave) delay lines in the 10 MHz – 120 MHz range with varying delays. These are primarily used for target generation, radar calibration, EW (Electronic Warfare), and digital memory delay. The BAW delay lines that calibrate radar and display systems are made out of quartz or glass that can be unheated or heated for increased stability.

Q: What other Delay Line products are made in the Auburn facility?

A: We also manufacture Lumped Constant (LC) delay lines that are used for video delay. They have short timers with delays of only a few nanoseconds to microseconds and feature discrete capacitors with digital inputs. 

Then there are our Coaxial delay lines which are made out of coaxial cables with a high frequency range and short delays of 250 nanoseconds down to 1 nanosecond, which is 70% the speed of light. These cables range from ¼ in long to 225 ft. long. With Coaxial delay lines the longer the cable, the longer the delay. 

Q: How do we add value for our customers?

A: We customize our delay line products about 99% of the time, so our customers almost always get a solution that is tailor-made for their specifications and needs. Our customers can also rest assured that these products are made to be highly reliable. Our Dispersive Steel delay lines are known to be used for 20 years without any issues, and they frequently do not need to be retuned until they have been in use for 30 years.  Our BAW delay lines provide a passive, stable delay source which can serve as reference for radar systems for many years, which is extremely important for radar calibration. 

We also offer a lower frequency Coaxial delay line box with switches that allow for trimming up to 10 radar channels. The customer can then control the trimming based on the delay that is needed. This is primarily used for multiple channels that need to be arranged in time, with each step having a 1.4 nanosecond change.  

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Meet the Team | RF/Microwave & Microelectronics

Delay Lines Week Meet the Team: Mike Schweyer, SAW Product Line Manager

by Jaymie Murray 10. March 2015 09:01

As the SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) Product Line Manager at API's Marlborough, MA facility, Mike Schweyer works directly with customers to find the best SAW Delay Line solution to fit their needs. API offers a variety of SAW Delay Line bandwidths, frequencies, packaging, and substrates, which ensures that customers get a solution that meets their exact requirements.

Q: What is your title here at API and what is your background?

A: I’m the Product Line Manager for SAW products at API’s Marlborough, MA facility. I got my degree in electrical engineering from the University of Maine and I’ve been in this field for 15 years. During my career, I’ve worked mostly with different types of SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) products, including SAW delay lines.

Q: How are delays created in the SAW delay lines?

A: We use three different substrates that have different wave velocities which produce different delays. We choose the substrate based on the end use. We also use aluminum transducers that convert an acoustic wave to a fixed velocity, and then we can adjust the delay based on how far apart we place the transducers. The further apart the transducers, the longer the delay. 

Q: Where can API’s delay lines be found and why are delay lines needed?

A: For example, the military uses our SAW delay lines for radar calibration and jamming. The delay lines allow the radar system to effectively process and synchronize signals that are traveling at the speed of light. Without the delays, the radar wouldn’t be able to interpret all of the signals it is receiving.  

Q: What makes our SAW delay lines unique to our customers?

A: There are a few reasons. First, we manufacture our SAW delay lines in a MIL-PRF-38534 Class H and Class K facility in Marlborough, MA. While this is a requirement to do business with military customers, we use the same equipment and design philosophies when we are working with our commercial customers, resulting in the same high quality, high reliability products.

We pride ourselves on being able to successfully deliver on even the most difficult technical specs. As an example, while the typical SAW delay line is around 13.3 mm x 6.5 mm, we created packages that are as small as 3 mm x 3 mm for customers that needed an extremely small footprint. 

API doesn’t just deal in extremely large volumes like a lot of our competitors do. None of our SAW delay lines come off the shelf, they are all either semi-standard or custom. Over the years, we have created over 3000 different designs, so we have the heritage and experience customers need. 

API also offers an integration team dedicated to creating a complete solution for customers. We can craft an entire sub-system using the other products in our RF & Microwave line. If a signal needs to travel a particularly long distance, we can add one of our amplifiers to the sub-system. That amplified signal can then be delayed based on customer requirements.

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Meet the Team | RF/Microwave & Microelectronics

Introducing Delay Lines Week

by Jaymie Murray 9. March 2015 09:36

API’s extensive catalogue of delay lines offer a range of semi-standard and customizable topologies that feature wide bandwidths and low insertion loss. Our BAW (Bulk Acoustic Wave), SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave), Lumped Constant, Steel Dispersive, and Coaxial - High Frequency delay lines are available in a variety of package sizes and interface options, ensuring that our customers will get the best solution for their individual needs. All this week, we will be exploring the many features and applications of our delay lines and what they can offer to customers that require both high performance as well as high reliability. 

Delay Lines API TECHNOLOGIES BAW Topologies SAW Low frequency Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) Delay Lines offer a wide range of semi-standard or custom delay solutions designed to meet unique specifications. Many interface options are offered including SMA (Female and Male), N-Type (Female), TNC (Female), Leaded and SMD. Packaging options include low cost, plastic encapsulated or hermetically welded. BAW delay lines are available in both connectorized or pin and surface mount. Frequency Range: 20MHz - 2000MHz Delay: 0.1µsec – 10µsec InsertionLoss: Starts at 3dB, increase withdelay and bandwidth Frequency Range: 10MHz - 120MHz Delay: 0.15µsec – 3,000µsec InsertionLoss: 6dB – 65dBSteel Dispersive Lumped Constant Coaxial Non-dispersive and dispersive SAW Delay Lines offer semi-standard or custom designs with various delay and bandwidth options. SAW Delay Lines are available in several packaging options such as ceramic leadless chip carriers, which provide small size and weight, and platform packages, which are suited for harsh applications. API Technologies has experience with delay lines on various substrates including quartz, lithium tantalate and lithium niobate. All SAW Delay Lines are hermetically sealed to ensure robust performance. Lumped Constant Delay Lines offer excellent frequency stability in semi-standard or custom designs to meet unique specifications. Active buffered, passive fixed and variable designs are available. Many interface options are offered including DIP, SIP Leaded and SMD. Packaging options include low cost, plastic encapsulated or hermetically welded. Pulse compression Dispersive Steel Delay Lines are offered in semi-standard or custom designs and available in many interface options including SMA (Female and Male), N-Type (Female), TNC (Female), Leaded and SMD. Our dispersive Steel delay lines can be ovenized for high stability center frequencies. Non- or hermetically welded packaging options are available. Frequency Range: DC- 6GHz Delay:1nsec -250nsec InsertionLoss:0.2dB-50dB Frequency Range: 5MHz - 65MHz Delay: 10µsec - 350µsec InsertionLoss: 20-45dB Frequency Range: DC - 150MHz Delay: 10nsec – 5000nsec InsertionLoss: 5% bandwidthHigh frequency Coaxial Delay Lines utilize semi-rigid cable, from small diameters, such as .041” up to diameters of .250”. API’s coaxial delay lines can be easily adjusted by changing the length of the cable and can be heated to improve temperature stability. Many interface options are offered including SMA (Female and Male), N-Type (Female), TNC (Female), Leaded and SMD. API offers a wide range of semi-standard and custom coaxial delay solutions designed to meet customer specifications for a wide range of applications. InsertionLoss:0.2dB-50dB Applications Signal Processing Circuits Radar Systems Electronic Warfare Clock Synchronization

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Commercial Wireless Solutions Week: Why is PIM Important?

by Molly Weis 20. February 2015 14:08

In the development of today’s communications networking applications, low passive intermodulation (PIM) ratings are increasingly recognized as one of the most critical requirements for optimum system performance in a wireless network infrastructure. API's range of filters all feature low PIM ratings with designs achieving PIM as low as -160dBc. 

Passive Intermodulation (PIM) in Wireless Network Infrastructures  In the development of today’s communications networking applications, low passive intermodulation (PIM) ratings are increasingly recognized as one of the most critical requirements for optimum system performance in a wireless network infrastructure. With the complexity of today’s mobile networks ever improving, designers of wireless telecom systems must find a way to tackle these increasingly stringent PIM requirements, as even the smallest levels of PIM distortion can significantly impact the network performance of our customers.In crowded environments, such as multi-tenant high-rise office buildings, large-scale public venues and other densely populated venues, where concentrated smart phone or device usage contributing to PIM generation is at a maximum, the tight requirements to combat PIM interference continue to grow. Intermodulation can occur whenever more than one signal is present in an RF system; when intermodulation occurs, a loss in data and the diminishment of cell phone network coverage occurs.API Technologies’ wireless communication filter solutions have been designed to meet the most stringent PIM requirements needed in today's wireless systems, with designs achieving PIM ratings as low as -160dBc, allowing for maximum reliability in wireless network connectivity.Passive Intermodulation and Wireless Data TransmissionWireless base stations use tightly grouped channels and complex modulation schemes to enable the transmission of vast amounts of data to and between their users. The modulating of RF signals is commonplace for the transmission of information across a network; unwanted PIM occurs as a byproduct whenever more than one signal (such as a Tx or Rx signal) is channeled through a single RF path. Since Rx signals are typically low power by nature, interference with regular voice and data traffic is likely to occur, especially in areas highly saturated by mobile phone or device usage. Unwanted PIM interference in a wireless network’s transmission channels results in loss of cellular reception and slow, ineffective data transfer.Protecting Your Network from PIM Disruptions The best way to reduce PIM interference in a network and preserve optimum network quality is to prevent the introduction of PIM sensitive devices in the first place. Wireless base stations should be equipped with only high quality, low PIM filters and components to provide the fastest and most reliable transmission of data possible.

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RF/Microwave & Microelectronics

Commercial Wireless Solutions Week Case Study: Solving Wireless Co-Location & Brute Force Overload Issues for Major Telecom Company

by Jaymie Murray 20. February 2015 10:00

In a rapidly changing wireless landscape with ever growing system demands, telecom companies need to constantly increase their cell site footprint. In this case study, we explore how one telecom company faced major co-location and brute force overload (BFO) issues when they expanded LTE coverage near a military training base. Faced with the possibility of removing the cell site and thereby impacting their customers, the company turned to API Technologies filters to solve their issues and help them continue to provide excellent service.

Challenge A major telecommunications company that provides wireless, internet, and digital television services has been rapidly expanding LTE (high speed wireless data) coverage to meet consumer demand. One of their cell towers operating in the AWS-band at 2100 MHz was placed at a busy airport to meet the needs of travelers and staff.  While service was enhanced for consumers at the airport, this created an interference problem for the military training base located nearby. The base’s three satellite receivers were located within 50 feet of the cell tower, creating brute force overload (BFO) and co-location issues that posed significant problems. Solution After repeatedly trying and failing to find a vendor that had the capabilities to rectify the situation, the telecom company contacted API Technologies. API’s engineers quickly determined the source of the issue and suggested a solution that would quickly and efficiently mitigate the problem. By installing a receive filter with a very low insertion loss in the military base’s system, everything on the AWS frequency was filtered out. Result The filter restored functionality to the base’s satellites and allowed the telecom company to keep their cell tower located at the airport.

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RF/Microwave & Microelectronics

Commercial Wireless Solutions Week: How API's Filters Work Microwave Magic for Telecom Titans

by Jaymie Murray 19. February 2015 10:20

Cell base station co-location interference issues pose a significant challenge for major telecom service providers. Several mobile carriers operating on different frequencies typically share a single base station, which can cause severe interference problems. API Technologies' filters rectify this problem by discerning and then discarding competitor frequencies, thereby eliminating interference issues. 

How API’s FiltersWork Microwave Magic for TelecomTitans A cell site is a cellular phone site where antennas and other communications devices are placed on an elevated structure. Typically, there are several receiving signals at the same cell site. With each carrier concurrently operating to use frequency discriminating devices to remove signals generated by their competitors. Without these devices, cell phones would pick up ALL of the frequencies in range, rendering them inoperable. competitors’signals and only transmit and receive their own signals. What is Cell Base Station Co-Location? Why is Co-Location a Problem? How do API’s Filters SolveThis Problem? Why Choose API’s Filters? API’s High-Q provide lowerloss and betterperformance perform better, they provide higher cell coverage Means fewer cell sitesare needed to retain highqualityservice even as users and datademands increase! The Q Factor Better Performance Higher Cell Coverage Visit Or call +1 (888) 553.7531 to learn more

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Infographics | RF/Microwave & Microelectronics

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