Quantum computing will transform our understanding of the world. Its impact will span communications, banking, national security, pharmaceuticals, and more. Leadership in this dynamic, growing field is important to the economy and security of the nation. In fact, a few months ago, the White House and Department of Energy announced a $1 billion effort, in part, to establish quantum information science. The goal is to ensure America takes a leadership role in quantum computing and related quantum technologies.
Quantum computing installations rely on cryogenic refrigeration systems. Eliminating thermal noise in a quantum computing installation demands a high degree of innovation and reliability. APITech’s experience delivering components, including coaxial attenuators, terminations and related technologies for use in harsh environments with high reliability requirements, including space, is the foundation supporting the development of our cryo attenuators.
Using our in-house resistor fabrication processes and materials, APITech is able to optimize the resistor material, substrate and fabrication processes as well as the mechanical design needed to offer a "thermally quiet" attenuator solution at cryo temperatures.
Qubits and Thermal Noise
Instead of bits, quantum computers use quantum bits (qubits) which can only be detected at extremely small energy levels -- and at temperatures close to absolute zero.
A typical computer employs long strings of “bits.” These bits are tiny switches which can be in the “off” position (0) or in the on position (1). On or off. One or zero. Binary. A quantum computer, however, uses quantum bits. Quantum bits can have a value of one or zero – or both. What this means, in effect, is that quantum computing processing power scales exponentially. Once unthinkable data calculations and simulations can be generated in minutes, not years.
The qubit must be supercooled to be read.
This requires cryogenic refrigeration systems with multiple stages of cooling, and numerous RF cables of significant length, all of which introduces thermal noise, harming the integrity of the qubit. APITech's cryo attenuators, mounted at different temperature stages of the cryo chamber, helps to solve this problem. APITech's cryo attenuators, tested to 4mK, are reliable at the temperatures these cryo installations demand.
Eliminating thermal noise in a quantum computing installation, or supporting any cryo application, demands a high degree of performance and reliability. In addition to its cryo attenuators, APITech also offers Powerfilm brand chip attenuators, which retain their electrical characteristics down to near absolute zero (0K) temperatures.